• Data

    • IN EVALUATING

      Information collected by a researcher. Data gathered during an evaluation are manipulated and analyzed to yield findings that serve as the basis for conclusions and recommendations.

    • IN GENERAL

      Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.

  • Data Set

    • IN GENERAL

      A collection of related sets of information that is composed of separate elements but can be manipulated as a unit by a computer.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries
  • Decay (Noun)

    • IN GENERAL

      Undergo a gradual decrease.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries
    Commentary

    Decay is often used to note that the effects of interventions, especially behavior interventions, may not last indefinitely, as people or the situation tend to revert back to the pre-intervention state.

  • Depreciation

    • IN GENERAL

      A reduction in the value of an asset over time, due in particular to wear and tear.

    • IN ACCOUNTING

      Depreciation is an accounting method of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both tax and accounting purposes. For tax purposes, businesses can deduct the cost of the tangible assets they purchase as business expenses; however, businesses must depreciate these assets in accordance with IRS rules about how and when the deduction may be taken.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries (2) Accounting: Investopedia
  • Development Bank

    • IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

      Financial institutions dedicated to fund new and upcoming businesses and economic development projects by providing equity capital and/or loan capital.

    Practice & Source: (1) Sustainable development: BusinessDictionary.com
  • Development Finance Institution (DFI)

    • IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

      The term ” development finance institutions ” (DFI) encompasses not only government development banks, but also nongovernmental micro-finance organizations, that match grants to attempt to promote community development, decentralization of power, and local empowerment. Measures of the social cost of DFIs that receive public funds, help to check whether DFIs are good uses of public funds, i.e., if the social benefit of a DFI exceeds the social cost, then public funds are indeed well-spent, further improving social welfare.

    Practice & Source: (1) Sustainable development: eLibrary, World Bank Group
  • Development Impact Bond (DIB)

    • IN FINANCE

      Development Impact Bonds provide upfront funding for development programs by private investors, who are remunerated by donors or host-country governments—and earn a return—if evidence shows that programs achieve pre-agreed outcomes.

    Practice & Source: (1) Finance/Impact investing: Development Impact Bond Working Group, Center for Global Development
  • Developmental evaluation

    • IN EVALUATING

      An evaluation approach that can assist social innovators develop social change initiatives in complex or uncertain environments. Developmental evaluation (DE) originators liken their approach to the role of research & development in the private sector product development process because it facilitates real-time, or close to real-time, feedback to program staff thus facilitating a continuous development loop. Michael Quinn Patton is careful to describe this approach as one choice that is responsive to context. This approach is not intended as the solution to every situation. Development evaluation is particularly suited to innovation, radical program re-design, replication, complex issues, crises In these situations, DE can help by: framing concepts, test quick iterations, tracking developments, surfacing issues.

    Practice & Source: (1) Evaluation: BetterEvaluation
    Commentary

    “Developmental Evaluation” is an approach developed by Michael Quinn Patton. It adds an evaluator’s perspective to the set of models and practices that promote learning, adaptation, and continuous improvement in a fast-changing, complex environment.

  • Discount rate

    • IN FINANCE

      a) The interest rate charged by a central bank to commercial banks when lending short-term funds (by discounting government paper or using government paper as collateral). In the US, the discount rate, which acts as a reference rate for commercial banks’ own lending rates, is one of the two key rates manipulated by the Federal Reserve to control money supply (the other being the Federal funds rate). b) The discount rate is also the interest rate at which commercial banks discount bills of exchange. c) The term also refers to the interest rate used to calculate discounted cashflow.

    • IN ECONOMICS

      The annual percentage rate at which the present value of a future pound, or other unit of account, is assumed to fall away through time.

    Practice & Source: (1) Finance/Impact investing: Financial Times Lexicon (2) Economics: HM Treasury Green Book: Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government.
    Commentary

    There is the potential for confusion between the use of “discount rate” to refer to the interest rate charged in certain circumstances of borrowing and the rate used to discount future cash flows to net present value. See “discounting” and “net present value”.

    Also, there are debates about what discount rate (for net present value calculations) it is appropriate to use when considering the value of natural capital, which may actually increase in the future relative to the present rather than decrease (the way the value of currency tends to do, due to inflation).

  • Discounting (Verb)

    • IN ECONOMICS

      A technique used to compare costs and benefits that occur in different time periods. It is a separate concept from inflation, and is based on the principle that, generally, people prefer to receive goods and services now rather than later. This is known as ‘time preference’.

    Commentary

    “Discounting” can also refer to reducing price to increase sales (i.e., offering a discount).

  • Displacement

    • IN ECONOMICS

      The action of moving something from its place or position.

    • IN ECONOMICS

      The degree to which an increase in productive capacity promoted by government policy is offset by reductions in productive capacity elsewhere.

    Commentary

    Displacement in evaluation, economics, and impact investing, typically refers to the benefits of an intervention, program or policy displacing other benefits. For example, a reduction in crime levels in one local area may lead to an increase in crime in another; in such a case crime may not actually decrease but rather is displaced.

  • Distance travelled

    • IN PHILANTHROPY

      No clear, authoritative definition. See commentary.

    Commentary

    “Distance travelled” is used, particularly in the UK non-profit sector, to refer to the relative progress made by people towards health, well-being, and developmental goals, such as from addiction to recovery, educational achievement, or living independently of others. It is an alternative to measuring success by the achievement of absolute goals that tends to be insensitive to progress made that may fall short of the absolute goal.

  • Diversification

    • IN FINANCE

      A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. The rationale behind this technique contends that a portfolio constructed of different kinds of investments will, on average, yield higher returns and pose a lower risk than any individual investment found within the portfolio.

    Practice & Source: (1) Finance/Impact investing: Investopedia
    Commentary

    This technique is mostly used in the financial world but applies to business–such diversification of products–and other fields.

  • Diversify

    • IN PHILANTHROPY

      Make or become more diverse or varied.

    Practice & Source: (1) Philanthropy: Oxford Living Dictionaries
    Commentary

    See diversification.

  • Double bottom line

    • IN SOCIAL ENTERPRISING

      The simultaneous pursuit of financial and social returns on investment – the ultimate benchmark for a social enterprise or a social sector business.

    Practice & Source: (1) Social enterprise: A Practical Lexicon for Social Entrepreneurs
    Commentary

    “Double bottom line” extends the notion of the conventional bottom line that measures financial performance—profit or loss—by adding positive or negative social impact as a second bottom. “Double bottom line” has been superseded by “triple bottom line” which has gained more popularity as a concept and in practice.

  • Drop-off (Noun)

    • IN EVALUATING

      The deterioration of an outcome over time.

    Commentary

    See commentary for “decay”.

  • Due diligence

    • IN FINANCE

      An investigation or audit of a potential investment to confirm all facts, such as reviewing all financial records, plus anything else deemed material. Due diligence refers to the care a reasonable person should take before entering into an agreement or a financial transaction with another party. When sellers perform a due diligence analysis on buyers, items that may be considered are the buyer’s ability to purchase, as well as other elements that would affect the acquired entity or the seller after the sale has been completed.

    Practice & Source: (1) Finance/Impact investing: Investopedia
  • Duration

    • IN GENERAL

      The time during which something continues.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries