• Target (Noun)

    • IN GENERAL

      a) A person, object, or place selected as the aim of an attack. b) An objective or result towards which efforts are directed.

    • IN EVALUATING

      The specified result(s), often expressed by a value of an indicator(s), that a project, program, or policy is intended to achieve.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries (2) Evaluation: USAID Glossary of Evaluation Terms
    Commentary

    A target can be a specific indicator or result, such as an earnings target, or a group of people, such as target beneficiaries or target customers. There are also several phrases that start with target, such as target company and target accounting, that have specific meanings.

  • Target group

    • IN EVALUATING

      The specific individuals or organizations for whose benefit the intervention is undertaken.

    Commentary

    The difference between the target group of an intervention and the beneficiaries of an intervention is that the former are intended to benefit whereas the latter may benefit without intention.

  • Technical Assistance (TA)

    • IN PHILANTHROPY

      Operational or management assistance given to a nonprofit organization. It can include fundraising assistance, budgeting and financial planning, program planning, legal advice, marketing, and other aids to management. Assistance may be offered directly by a foundation or corporate staff member or in the form of a grant to pay for the services of an outside consultant.

    Practice & Source: (1) Philanthropy: Council on Foundations: Glossary of Philanthropic Terms
    Commentary

    Technical Assistance is not just restricted to the non-profit sector. It is sometimes given to a private sector company to enhance its management or operational practices. In the banking industry in developing countries a Multilateral Development Bank or donor may provide Technical Assistance to establish enhanced credit regulations and adequate rule in respect of corporate governance. In the private sector Technical Assistance is sometimes provided with the intention that part of the cost is paid back.

  • Terms of reference

    • IN GENERAL

      The scope and limitations of an activity or area of knowledge.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries
    Commentary

    A common use of “terms of reference” is to describe the scope and purpose of an evaluation.

  • Thematic evaluation

    • IN EVALUATING

      Evaluation of a selection of interventions, all of which address a specific priority that cuts across countries, regions, and sectors.

  • Theory of Change (TOC)

    • IN EVALUATING

      A comprehensive description and illustration of how and why a desired change is expected to happen in a particular context. It is focused in particular on mapping out or “filling in” what has been described as the “missing middle” between what a program or change initiative does (its activities or interventions) and how these lead to desired goals being achieved. It does this by first identifying the desired long-term goals and then works back from these to identify all the conditions (outcomes) that must be in place (and how these related to one another causally) for the goals to occur.

    Practice & Source: (1) Evaluation: Center for Theory of Change
    Commentary

    Theories of change are one of the most common causal-based models used for planning and evaluation. Others include logic models, results chains, value chains, outcome maps, impact maps, and logframes. There are differences in the design of these models–for example theories of change allow for more complex causal pathways than logic models and results chains–but in practice some of these differences are not apparent and these terms are sometimes used as synonyms.

  • Third sector

    • IN GENERAL

      The part of an economy or society comprising non-governmental and non-profit-making organizations or associations, including charities, voluntary and community groups, cooperatives, etc.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries
  • Tool

    • IN GENERAL

      A thing used to help perform a job.

    Practice & Source: (1) Generic: Oxford Living Dictionaries
    Commentary

    The broad definition means that tool can apply to methods, software, checklists, guidance, and more.

  • Triple bottom line

    • IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

      Triple bottom line is a phrase introduced in 1994 by John Elkington and later used in his 1997 book “Cannibals With Forks: The Triple Bottom Line Of 21st Century Business,” which seeks to broaden the focus on the financial bottom line by businesses to include social and environmental responsibilities. A triple bottom line measures a company’s degree of social responsibility, its economic value and its environmental impact. A key challenge with the triple bottom line, according to Elkington, is the difficulty of measuring the social and environmental bottom lines, which necessitates the three separate accounts being evaluated on their own merits.

    Practice & Source: (1) Sustainable development: Investopedia
    Commentary

    “Triple bottom line” and “double bottom line” are often used interchangeably, though they have slightly different meanings. “Triple bottom line” refers to the financial, social, and environmental value generated by a business, while “double bottom line” refers to the financial and social or environmental value generated by a busines